Hugo's death from pneumonia on 22 May , at the age of 83, generated intense national mourning. He was not only revered as a towering figure in literature, he was a statesman who shaped the Third Republic and democracy in France. All his life he remained a defender of liberty, equality and fraternity as well as an adamant champion of French culture. In , aged 75, he wrote, "I am not one of these sweet-tempered old men. I am still exasperated and violent.
I shout and I feel indignant and I cry. Woe to anyone who harms France!
I do declare I will die a fanatic patriot. Most large French towns and cities have a street or square named after him. Je donne cinquante mille francs aux pauvres. Je crois en Dieu. I wish to be buried in their hearse. I refuse [funeral] orations from all Churches. I ask all souls for a prayer.
I believe in God. Hugo produced more than 4, drawings. Originally pursued as a casual hobby, drawing became more important to Hugo shortly before his exile when he made the decision to stop writing to devote himself to politics. Drawing became his exclusive creative outlet between and Hugo worked only on paper, and on a small scale; usually in dark brown or black pen-and-ink wash, sometimes with touches of white, and rarely with colour.
The surviving drawings are surprisingly accomplished and "modern" in their style and execution, foreshadowing the experimental techniques of Surrealism and Abstract expressionism. He would not hesitate to use his children's stencils, ink blots, puddles and stains, lace impressions, " pliage " or folding e. Rorschach blots , " grattage " or rubbing, often using the charcoal from matchsticks or his fingers instead of pen or brush. Sometimes he would even toss in coffee or soot to get the effects he wanted. Hugo kept his artwork out of the public eye, fearing it would overshadow his literary work.
Napoleon signs order for release of Flinders. It is certain that Baudin had no motive for concealing his knowledge, if he knew of the existence of Port Phillip when he met Flinders. To meet these accountability objectives, the Special Rapporteur also had to determine whether or not to disclose the names of those who are suspected of involvement in the execution of Mr. Khashoggi, at the very least if he would not agree to return. While we deplore this tale of distress, we can but mark the striking contrast with the English vessel and her jolly crew. Someone suggests that Interpol has issued a Red Alert Notice and that he must return. Breakthrough in Eastern Europe A panorama of the changes that happened in Eastern Europe at the end of the 's.
However, he enjoyed sharing his drawings with his family and friends, often in the form of ornately handmade calling cards, many of which were given as gifts to visitors when he was in political exile. Some of his work was shown to, and appreciated by, contemporary artists such as van Gogh and Delacroix ; the latter expressed the opinion that if Hugo had decided to become a painter instead of a writer, he would have outshone the artists of their century.
Despite their respective affairs, they lived together for nearly 46 years until she died in August From February until her death in , Juliette Drouet devoted her whole life to Victor Hugo, who never married her even after his wife died in He took her on his numerous trips and she followed him in exile on Guernsey. There Hugo rented a house for her near Hauteville House , his family home. She wrote some 20, letters in which she expressed her passion or vented her jealousy on her womanizing lover. She saved my life in December For me she underwent exile.
Never has her soul forsaken mine. Let those who have loved me love her. Let those who have loved me respect her. She is my widow.
H . Both were caught in adultery on 5 July Hugo, who had been a Member of the Chamber of Peers since April, avoided condemnation whereas his mistress had to spend two months in prison and six in a convent. Many years after their separation, Hugo made a point of supporting her financially. Hugo gave free rein to his sensuality until a few weeks before his death. He sought a wide variety of women of all ages, be they courtesans, actresses, prostitutes, admirers, servants or revolutionaries like Louise Michel for sexual activity.
Both a graphomaniac and erotomaniac , he systematically reported his casual affairs using his own code, as Samuel Pepys did, to make sure they would remain secret. For instance, he resorted to Latin abbreviations osc. Same things. Analogy also enabled him to conceal the real meaning: A woman's Suisses Swiss are her breasts — due to the fact that Switzerland is renowned for its milk. After a rendezvous with a young woman named Laetitia he would write Joie Happiness in his diary. If he added t.
The initials S. Ville avec le pont de Tumbledown , "Town with Tumbledown Bridge" , Pieuvre avec les initiales V. Le Rocher de l'Ermitage dans un paysage imaginaire "Ermitage Rock in an imaginary landscape". Gavroche a onze ans , " Gavroche at eleven years old". The house where he stayed in Vianden , Luxembourg, in has also become a commemorative museum. Avenue Victor-Hugo , located in Shawinigan , Quebec, was named to honour him.
A street in San Francisco , Hugo Street, is named for him. Victor Hugo is the namesake of the city of Hugoton, Kansas. British Railways perpetuated this memorial, naming Class 92 Electric Unit after him. According to religious records, he was assigned by God to lead the foreign mission as part of God's Divine hierarchy.
In all heavens, beauty reigns, Its beings possess much of divinity. Peace and harmony rule these realms, Their beings know not the word 'war'. Poems of Victor Hugo. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Victor Hugo disambiguation. Peer of France — Age of Enlightenment List of liberal theorists contributions to liberal theory. Schools of thought.
Regional variants. Related topics. Bias in academia Bias in the media. Le phare "The Lighthouse". Arcade Publishing. Jorge Pinto Books, Inc. Archived from the original on 14 July History of the Theatre. Eight Edition. Retrieved 3 April Exclamation Mark! Guinness Book of World Records: Edition.
Bantam Books, p.
Victor Hugo: A Biography. State Library of Victoria.